Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Notes

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Sílvia: Hello everyone! I'm Sílvia, and welcome to PortuguesePOD101.com.
Braden: With us, you'll learn to speak Portuguese with fun and effective lessons.
Sílvia: We also provide you with cultural insights...
Braden: ...and tips you won't find in a textbook.
Silvia: está pronto?
Braden: tô. E você?
Silvia: sempre!
Braden: ta bom! okay so in this lesson we have a brother and sister talking about the sister's school project.
Silvia: That's right. He seems worried about her.
Braden: Yes he does.
Lesson Details
Silvia: So Braden, please tell us what we'll be learning in this lesson.
Braden: In this lesson, we'll be learning using the absolute superlative
Silvia: Where does this conversation take place and who is it between?
Braden: This conversation takes place at night, at home and it's between Eduardo and Elaine.
Silvia: What's the formality level?
Braden: Well, it's informal.
Silvia: Let's listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
Eduardo: Não acredito que você ainda está acordada. «bocejo»
Elaine: (com voz de sono) Estou sim, estou terminando um trabalho importantíssimo.
Eduardo: Mas você já não entregou esse trabalho semana passada?
Elaine: (desanimada) Entreguei sim, mas o professor disse que estava péssimo e me mandou refazer.
Eduardo: Mas estava ótimo, eu mesmo li.
Elaine: É, mas o professor não gostou nada...
Eduardo: Então vou preparar um cafezinho pra você não dormir na cadeira.
Elaine: Valeu.
Eduardo: Você precisa de mais alguma coisa?
Elaine: Só que o semestre acabe logo.
Eduardo: Não se preocupe, você consegue.
Elaine: Obrigada.
English Host: Let’s hear the conversation one time slowly.
Eduardo: Não acredito que você ainda está acordada. «bocejo»
Elaine: (com voz de sono) Estou sim, estou terminando um trabalho importantíssimo.
Eduardo: Mas você já não entregou esse trabalho semana passada?
Elaine: (desanimada) Entreguei sim, mas o professor disse que estava péssimo e me mandou refazer.
Eduardo: Mas estava ótimo, eu mesmo li.
Elaine: É, mas o professor não gostou nada...
Eduardo: Então vou preparar um cafezinho pra você não dormir na cadeira.
Elaine: Valeu.
Eduardo: Você precisa de mais alguma coisa?
Elaine: Só que o semestre acabe logo.
Eduardo: Não se preocupe, você consegue.
Elaine: Obrigada.
English Host: Now let’s hear it with the English translation.
Eduardo: Não acredito que você ainda está acordada. «bocejo»
Braden: I don't believe you're still awake.
Elaine: (com voz de sono) Estou sim, estou terminando um trabalho importantíssimo.
Braden«yawn»
Eduardo: Mas você já não entregou esse trabalho semana passada?
Braden: (sleepy) Yes I am. I'm finishing an extremely important homework assignment.
Elaine: (desanimada) Entreguei sim, mas o professor disse que estava péssimo e me mandou refazer.
Braden: But didn't you already turn this in last week?
Eduardo: Mas estava ótimo, eu mesmo li.
Braden: (sad) Yes I did, but the teacher said it was very bad and told me to redo it.
Elaine: É, mas o professor não gostou nada...
Braden: But it was great! I read it myself.
Eduardo: Então vou preparar um cafezinho pra você não dormir na cadeira.
Braden: I know but my teacher didn't like any of it.
Elaine: Valeu.
Braden: Okay then, I'll get some coffee ready so you don't fall asleep in your chair.
Eduardo: Você precisa de mais alguma coisa?
Braden: Thanks.
Elaine: Só que o semestre acabe logo.
Braden: Do you need anything else?
Eduardo: Não se preocupe, você consegue.
Braden: Just the semester ending soon.
Elaine: Obrigada.
Braden: Don't worry, you can do it.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Braden: (ask Silvia something about the dialogue-Peter always does a little review about the previous lessons. explain what you are thinking about the storyline in the lesson, so the students can follow and participate - don't make them guess.)
Silvia: (response)
Braden: Okay so tell us a little bit about Universities in Brazil
Silvia: we'll, On the surface, Brazilian universities are very similar to American universities. There are multiple courses in many different disciplines including medicine, law, letters, languages, engineering, international relations, and many others. Brazilian universities are also unique in several aspects. For example, Brazil has federal universities that are paid for using government funds.
Braden: That means there is no tuition and no fees.
Silvia: right. but you still usually have to pay for books and room and board. Some books, for example medical text books, can be over R$1000 per textbook.
Braden: These “free” universities were created to help low-income Brazilians earn a university degree.
Silvia: They have a specific number of vagas or openings in each course per year. However because these universities are free they create an extremely high demand frequently having more than 1000 applicants for only 1 or 2 openings. The applicants accepted are those which the highest score on that school's vestibular which is a unique entrance exam created by each university.
Braden: Sometimes this results in only a tenth of a percentage point being the difference between getting and being rejected.
Silvia: And R$1000 is a significant amount of money in a country with a minimum wage is only R$525 per month. You'd have to work for an entire year, not spending a cent, just to pay for your textbooks.
Braden: "Where did you go to college? do people often go to the states?"
VOCAB LIST
Braden: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
: The first word we shall see is:
Sí­lvia: bocejo [natural native speed]
Braden: yawn
Sí­lvia: bocejo [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Sí­lvia: bocejo [natural native speed]
: Next:
Sí­lvia: acordado [natural native speed]
Braden: awake
Sí­lvia: acordado [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Sí­lvia: acordado [natural native speed]
: Next:
Sí­lvia: entregar [natural native speed]
Braden: to deliver, to turn in
Sí­lvia: entregar [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Sí­lvia: entregar [natural native speed]
: Next:
Sí­lvia: péssimo [natural native speed]
Braden: the worst, very bad
Sí­lvia: péssimo [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Sí­lvia: péssimo [natural native speed]
: Next:
Sí­lvia: cafezinho [natural native speed]
Braden: shot of coffee, snack
Sí­lvia: cafezinho [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Sí­lvia: cafezinho [natural native speed]
: Next:
Sí­lvia: maninho [natural native speed]
Braden: buddy, friend,
Sí­lvia: maninho [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Sí­lvia: maninho [natural native speed]
: Next:
Sí­lvia: refazer [natural native speed]
Braden: to redo
Sí­lvia: refazer [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Sí­lvia: refazer [natural native speed]
: Next:
Sí­lvia: terminar [natural native speed]
Braden: to finish
Sí­lvia: terminar [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Sí­lvia: terminar [natural native speed]
: Next:
Sí­lvia: importantíssimo [natural native speed]
Braden: of utmost importance, very important
Sí­lvia: importantíssimo [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Sí­lvia: importantíssimo [natural native speed]
VOCAB AND PHRASE USAGE
Braden: Let's have a closer look at the usuage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Silvia: The first phrase we'll look at is Já não entregou
Braden: And what does this mean?
Silvia: we'll Já não entregou literally translates to “already no delivered” but it means “haven't already delivered” or “haven't already turned in.”
Braden: so here's my word order tip. Já never goes in between the não and the verb. It always goes before or after. Example
Silvia: that's right.
Braden: could you break this down?
Silvia: sure (break down)
Braden: what's our next phrase?
Silvia: não gostou nada
Braden: And what does this mean?
Silvia: Não gostou nada literally translates to “no liked nothing” but it means something closer to “didn't like anything” or “didn't like anything about it.”
Braden: Notice that this is another example where the verb gostar is not followed by de. In this case, the nada is mostly serving as an emphasis to the negativity of the teacher's opinion instead of him not liking a particular thing, although both meanings are present.
Silvia: Once again, the "de" isn't verbalized but it is inferred.
Braden: could you break this down?
Silvia: (break down)
Braden: what's our next phrase?
Silvia: pra você não dormir
Braden: pra você não dormir literally translates to “to you no to sleep” but it means “so you don't fall asleep.”
Silvia: The pra and dormir are connected thus making the verb dormir stay in the infinitive instead of being conjugated. Had he said “para que” instead of just “pra” dorimir would have to be conjugated to its present subjunctive, durma.

Lesson focus

Braden: Okay Silvia, so what are we looking at in this lesson?
Silvia: The focus of this lesson is the absolute synthetic superlative
Braden: In the dialogue, we heard the phrase
Silvia: (desanimada) Entreguei sim, mas o professor disse que estava péssimo e me mandou refazer."
Braden: Which we translated as "Yes I did, but the teacher said it was very bad and told me to redo it."
Silvia: Okay so we are going to talk about the superlative which is a way to point at a particulary quality of something at it's highest level.
Braden: what did you just say?
Silvia: Ha! Anyway, In Portuguese there are two ways to make the superlative - the absolute superlative and the relative superlative.
Braden: Exactly, and like she said, The absolute superlative highlights the quality of somthing at its highest level. In the absolute superlative the quality or attribute is not directly compared to anything, which is why we do not call it a comparative.
Silvia: There are two ways of making the absolute superlative - the synthetic (when a suffix is used) and the analytic (when an adverb is used).
Braden: Okay so the synthetic superlative adds the suffixes -íssimo, -rimo or imo to the adjective. This intensifies its meaning it brings it up to its highest level.
Silvia: This form of superlative does not exist English. I wish it did because some times I want to use it and I can't.
Braden: ha! Could you give us some examples?
Silvia: Ha! I can try. A simple one would be Marta é magríssima.
Braden: Okay, that translates to “Marta is extremely thin.”
Silvia: Kind of, It's more like "Marta is extra extra so extremely thin it's shocking"
Braden: All of that in an -íssima?
Silvia: I told you it was hard to translate. Another example is O filme estava interessantíssimo.
Braden: Which we translated as “The film was of the highest interest.”
Silvia: but once again it's more like "The film is extremely, amazingly, awesomely, totally interesting."
Braden: Ha! or something like that.
Silvia: Right. This one is really easy. Just add on the endings íssimo, rimo, or imo to the adjective.
Braden: okay so the analytic. How do we use the analytic.
Silvia: The absolute analytic superlative uses adverbs such as muito, bastante and extremamente before the adjective to intensify it. So that would be Marta é muito magra.
Braden: Which translates to “Marta is very thin.” This we have in English. Another example?
Silvia: O filme é extremamente interessante. Which translates to “The film is extremely interesting.”
Braden: so, just add muito, bastante, or extremamente before the adjective?
Silvia: Right.
Braden: Okay, so let's take a look at the relative superlative. The relative superlative is used to highlight a quality of something at its highest level among a group.
Silvia: What?
Braden: Ha! That means this is how you say "the most (something)" or "the least (something)" It can relate things of a superior or inferior nature.
Silvia: Right so with Superiority the formula is o mais + adjective + de for masculine things
Braden: and a mais + adjective + de for feminine things. Remember, the grammatical gender is determined by the noun. In English, to change the adjective “fast” from “fast” to “fastest” you simply add an “-est.”
Silvia: In Portuguese, instead of adding “-est” at the end, you add the words “o" or "a mais” before the adjective.
Braden: For example, “rápido” which means “fast” becomes “o mais rápido” which means “the fastest.”
Silvia: right so back to marta - Marta é a mais magra da escola.
Braden: Which translates to “Marta is the thinnest of the school.”
Silvia: or the film example - O filme era o mais interessante de todos em cartaz.
Braden: Which translates to “The film was the most interesting of all the films on the posters.”
Silvia: Okay, so that was superiority. Now we'll talk about inferiority. The relative superlative for inferiority Highlights the most intense inferiority degree of the quality.
Braden: Wow. That was so correct it was almost wrong. In other words, this is how you say "the least."
Silvia: So we use the same formula as before but switch out the mais for menos. so it's o(a) menos + adjective + de
Braden: So back to marta you'd say “Marta is the least fat of the school.” in Portuguese by saying?
Silvia: "Marta é a menos gorda da escola."
Braden: and our film example?
Silvia: O filme era o menos entediante de todos em cartaz.
Braden: Which translates to “The film was the least boring of all the films on the posters.”
Silvia: remember these constructions can also be used euphamistically. Este cavalo é o menos veloz de todos.
Braden: Good point. This literally translates to "This horse is the fastest of all." but it means. “This horse is the slowest of all.”
Silvia: So our tip for this lesson is that some Portuguese adjectives do not follow this pattern because the base word is modified.
Braden: Kind of like a stem changing verb. The whole thing changes, not just suffix
Silvia: We've got those in the PDF so check that out.
Braden: That's all for this lesson!
Silvia: Thanks for listening!

Outro

Braden: That just about does it for today.
Braden: Like our podcasts?
Sílvia: Then like our Facebook Page too!
Braden: Get lesson updates, our Portuguese Word of the Day and news on Facebook.
Sílvia: Just search for PortuguesePod/Class.com and like our fan page
Braden: And if you like a lesson or series on PortuguesePod/Class.com...
Sílvia: Let us know...
Braden: ...by clicking the like button next to the lesson or series!
Braden: Have fun studying!
Sí­lvia: Até a próxima!

11 Comments

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PortuguesePod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 06:30 PM
Pinned Comment
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Staying up late to finish an assignment due the next day? Não tô gostando nada disso.

 

PortuguesePod101.com
Wednesday at 01:58 AM
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Hi Zhuldyzay,


As adjectives, "ruim" and "mau" both mean "bad".


"mau", however, is frequently used in set phrases that you can study. For example:

"de mau gosto" ("of bad taste")

"mau caráter" ("bad character")

"de mau humor" (ill-tempered").


Hope this helps! For more details, please check out our http://www.PortuguesePod101.com/myteacher


Sincerely,

Cristiane

Team PortuguesePod101.com

Zhuldyzay
Sunday at 06:06 PM
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Hello


I have one question, what is the difference between "ruim" and "mau"?

Portuguesepod101.com Verified
Saturday at 01:08 AM
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Hi Jonathan,


Thanks for posting.


"péssimo" is an irregular absolute synthetic superlative in which the base word is modified, so it is an exception.

You'll see some more examples in page 8 of the Lesson Notes :wink:


Cristiane

Team Portuguesepod101.com

Jonathan
Friday at 04:12 AM
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No "Lesson Notes" (de baixo "Grammar"), tem um exemplo frase (de díalogo de esta lição) com a palvra "péssimo" por um exemplo de absolute synthetic superlative, mas não parece ser, não é? Eu acho que péssimo é uma palavra solitário, e não construi com adícional "íssimo." Eu estou correto?


In the Lesson Notes, under Grammar, there is an example sentence from this lesson's dialogue with the word péssimo as an example (I think) of the absolute synthetic superlative, but it doesn't seem like it is, is it? I think "péssimo" is a word on its own, and not formed with the additional suffix "íssimo." Am I correct?

Portuguesepod101.com Verified
Thursday at 04:46 PM
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Hello Jonathan!


Thank you for your nice feedback! I am sure Braden will be glad to hear that :innocent:


Engla

Team PortuguesePod101.com

Jonathan
Tuesday at 09:51 AM
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Braden is really good at explaining grammar :thumbsup:

PortuguesePod101.com Verified
Wednesday at 03:22 PM
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Oi Niloo,


Isso mesmo. O verbo "estar" relaciona a ação com o presente, passado ou futuro.

Mas dependendo da frase, o sentido não muda usando "ser" ou "estar". :wink:


Paloma

Team PortuguesePod101.com

Niloo
Wednesday at 11:59 AM
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Obrigada Paloma!

Por isso, é o verbo estar dependente de tempo?

PortuguesePod101.com Verified
Monday at 11:42 AM
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Oi Niloo,


Ótima pergunta!

É bem confuso, eu sei.

In this case, you could say

"o filme era interessantíssimo" (the meaning is the same)

or

"o filme está extremamente interessante." (here, you're talking about a movie you're watching right now.)

Por exemplo, se o seu amigo te liga bem na hora do filme, você pode falar isso. Mas se o seu amigo perguntar "você já viu Cidade de Deus?" você poderia responder "Vi sim, esse filme é extremamente interessante.", usando o verbo ser.


Com o tempo, você vai se acostumar e saber de cor onde usar "ser" e "estar". :wink:

Bons estudos, e avisa se tiver qualquer pergunta!

Paloma

Team PortuguesePod101.com

Niloo
Friday at 02:03 PM
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No exemplos se escreve uma frase "o filme estava interessantíssimo" em outro exemplo se escreve "o filme é extremamente interessante"


Não tenho certeza porque usa o verbo estar no exemplo 1 e ser no exemplo dois?


Tenho ler muitos exemplos sobre o uso entre ser e estar e ainda to muito confusa às vezes.

Ajude!

Obrigada!